Motorer driver effektiviseringen

Det säger IEA i sin senaste World Energy Outlook (WEO 2016) där kapitel 7 ägnas åt effektvivisering och särskilt motorer. Mer än hälften av elanvändningen går till motordrift (se bild 1 nedan) och det finns en rad åtgärder som kan minska denna energianvändning med bortemot 40% (se bild 2 nedan). Märk dock att det inte endast handlar om byta dåliga motorer mot bättre utan det är mera genomgripande åtgärder.

I rekommendationerna finns en lång katalog över policyingrepp som behövs:

1. Minimum energy performance standards: MEPS limit the maximum amount of energy that a device may consume and are a proven policy tool in many different applications.
2. Extended product approach: The extended product approach expands the coverage of the regulation to the motor-driven unit, such as pump or compressor, to include the motor, end-use equipment, mechanical components and VSDs.
3. Energy labelling: A labelling scheme generally divides energy-using devices into different efficiency classes and thus helps consumers to choose more efficient products.
4. Price signal: In several countries, fossil-fuel subsidies and the inadequate embodiment of externalities in prices distort the true cost of electricity and thus can render desirable efficiency investment economically unviable in the eyes of the consumer.
5. Competitive tenders: Competitive tenders are common for renewable energy projects in many countries, but are still an exception for efficiency projects (though Switzerland has such a scheme and Germany has recently launched one).
6. Energy management systems (EMS) and energy audits: Such systems are computerbased tools that provide a framework to optimise the energy performance of an entire industrial plant
7. Energy service companies (ESCOs): ESCOs carry out energy efficiency projects for their customers (generally in the framework of an energy savings performance contract) and are paid from the energy savings achieved.
8. Industry-wide schemes: Various industry-wide efficiency regulations exist across the world.
9. Energy supplier obligation: Utilities are given saving targets and can (among others) source the savings from investment in motor systems via energy efficiency programmes for customers.
10. Awareness-raising measures: Low awareness and a lack of information present a significant obstacle to the uptake of energy efficiency. Training initiatives (capacity building), technical advice and documentation or energy efficiency networks can provide effective measures to address this aspect.
11. Financial incentives: Targeted financial incentives in the form of tax rebates, loan guarantees or subsidies for the installation of more efficient technologies can ease the burden of high initial capital expenditures involved in some energy efficiency investments.

Summarising, a range of policy measures is necessary to exploit the energy-saving potential of motor systems used in industry to the full extent possible. Policy-makers need to look beyond the current focus on component regulation to systems taken as a whole; and to pursue several approaches in parallel.








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